The central lesson of urban IPM project implementation over the past decade is that the complex ecological and social context of IPM argues for a sustained effort combining elements of technological development, adult education, local organisation, alliance building and lobbying.
Scientific excellence and adherence to ecological principles provide a strong technical basis for IPM development, and the application of participatory, non-formal adult education methods represent a real advance over models based on information dissemination and the delivery of simple messages. But these in themselves are not enough.
The long-term development of a sustainable IPM program also requires strong leadership and cooperation among user groups and the linkages between these groups and the wider community. The interactions of the people involved in a pest management system are the key to the success or failure of the program. When the respective roles of all the people in the pest management system are identified and agreed upon, and when these people communicate well with each other, effective and less expensive protection of the site and the people can be achieved with fewer risks.
Training is often identified as a major need or bottleneck in IPM projects, but uptake of lessons learned is often rather limited for various reasons. It can be argued that in some contexts, urban IPM requires a generally knowledge intensive approach.
From this perspective, IPM trainings are not an end in themselves, but rather a good starting point for the development of a sustainable awareness among the public agency's user groups and public at large and enable participants to design, implement and manage pest management plans beyond pesticides.
Training all employees on the basics of the IPM policy, the Department's IPM program and specific maintenance standards and IPM strategies will help ensure that they are understood and consistently followed. Implementing the IPM approach from design through daily maintenance will eliminate unnecessary applications of chemicals. In addition, full implementation of a well-understood IPM approach will create a more efficient and safe environment, saving time and money and increasing worker safety.
The following paragraphs provide administrative guidelines for developing a training plan:
Who should undergo IPM training?
All staff associated with the planning, design, construction, and maintenance of open space, parklands, roads, airports, rights-of-way, parking lots and other landscaped buildings and facilities and other areas where pests may need to be controlled should receive an orientation to the IPM policy and procedures, the user group specific IPM projects guidelines.
User group's IPM coordinators, management groups, facility managers, procurement managers, policy analysts, public & environmental health managers, occupational safety managers, pest control contractors, arborists, landscape & structural planners, gardeners, ground maintenance workers for vegetation or other pest management activities, building occupants and public should receive subject matter specific training on:
An overview of Integrated Pest Management including identification and life cycles of typical California pests, weeds and beneficial insects; determining threshold levels for different types of landscapes and facilities; and monitoring techniques
Noxious weed and other public health pest identification, control and regulations.
Pesticide laws and safety
Specific Best Management Practices as appropriate
Pollution Prevention, Source Control, Hazardous Material & Waste Management, Green Building Concepts, Eco-System, Watershed, Conservation, Structural and Landscape Planning, Plant Health Care, Sustainable Urban Landscape, Structural Vermin Proofing, Sanitation, Housekeeping & Maintenance etc.
Budget Preparation & Cross Sectional or Multi-Jurisdiction Capital Improvement Project planning & coordination
In order to reduce pollution prevention through pesticides, Staff responsible for maintaining and scheduling irrigation systems should receive training on:
Agency wide and Subject Matter Specific Training Modules
To the extent practical, IPM training should be shared across departments within the public agency. This will minimize the training cost and maximize the outreach for the common cause. Developing interactive (subject matter specific) training modules will help to disseminate the information to the right group of audience. Some of these modules should include on-the-job or field training component. As collaborative funding or grants are made available, these modules will be developed and posted on the website. A few examples of subject specific training programs from the Santa Clara County's IPM Program are as follows:
"I am the County IPM Guard" - An Administrative Training for Department IPM Coordinators, Facility Managers, Procurement Managers and Policy Makers
"My Contribution to The Healthy Environment" - An IPM Awareness Training for Santa Clara County Employees (Sanitation, Housekeeping and Maintenance Awareness training)
"Kindergarten to K-12" - IPM Grass Root Campaign
"The Bug that does not Bug Anymore" - Bug Safari
"Meeting the Experts" - Technical Training for Pest Managers, Subject matter specific training for various pest management projects
"Reducing Risk Through Pesticide Safety and Education
" - A training video designed (by UC Pesticide Education Program) for pesticide applicators to minimize self and environmental exposure to pesticides: The Pesticide Education Program strives to educate all pesticide applicators and users across the Santa Clara County about pest management alternatives, including the safe, proper, and legal use of pesticides. The program promotes responsible decision-making, which will protect pesticide users, public health, plant and animal health, and the environment. (The 113-page instructor's manual
(PDF 2782K) is designed to be used with this video. Copies of this public-domain video are available from each state pesticide regulatory agency and Cooperative Extension Service
pesticide applicator training coordinators). This training video is currently in use by SCC IPM Program as part of "Annual Pesticide Applicator Safety Education (IPM-PASE)" for pest control license holders, pest control maintenance workers and management staff in Department of Roads & Airport, FAF custodial and grounds staff and Department of Parks & Recreation. The California Department of Pesticide Regulation - Pest Management and Licensing branch has assigned 7 hours of continuing education units (CEU) to SCC IPM-PASE training. The training also meets the State mandated training requirements. For more information please contact the County IPM Manager- Naresh.Duggal@ceo.sccgov.org
"Regional IPM Conference"
and "Regional IPM Resource Manual"
- A collaborative approach among participating public agencies in the Bay Area
is designed to enable participants to develop and implement pest management plans beyond pesticide applications in their respective jurisdictions and also provide public education and outreach at a broader horizon. The first ever-Regional IPM Conference was hosted by Santa Clara County held on June 7, 2004 at the 70 West Hedding Street, San Jose, CA. The County IPM Manager was also successful
in compiling & editing the first "Regional IPM Resource Manual"
. Approximately five hundred (500) CD-ROM copies
were developed and distributed to the participants and other interested parties. The proceeds from the sale of this CD & Conference participation will further assist in improving & updating the manual as and when needed.
"Precautionary Principles for Pollution Prevention" - A training designed for Policy Makers and Executive Management, This training module provides an in depth look on understanding environmental policy development and management, precautionary principles towards environmental stewardship, How to: budget preparation, program/portfolio consolidation, grant and fund management; Environmental Preferable Purchasing, Green Building Concepts, Organic Gardening, Resource Conservation etc.